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Many plant-encoded E3 ligases are known to be involved in plant defense. Ramu et al. report a novel role of E3 ligase SALT- AND DROUGHT-INDUCED RING FINGER1 (SDIR1) in plant immunity. Their research suggests that SDIR1 is a susceptibility factor and its activation or overexpression enhances disease caused by P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis.
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of wheat stripe rust that causes severe yield losses all over the world. Zhao et al. represent the first analysis of the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici transcriptome in barberry and contribute to a better understanding of the evolutionary processes and strategies of different types of rust spores during the infection process on different hosts.
Gao and colleagues use alanine scanning of the Tobacco necrosis virus-A coat
protein to identify 3 amino acid residues that differentially affect movement
of the virus through the plant in tobacco and soybean, as well as identifying
host specific interactions of the HSP70 protein Hsc70-2 with the coat protein
to mediate systemic infection.
Clark and colleagues investigate the role of the Liberibacter effector SDE1, finding that it promotes colonization by Liberibacter, the causative agent of citrus greening disease, or huanglongbing, likely by inducing premature senescence responses in leaves.
Wheat stem rust, a previously well-controlled disease, has reemerged as a major threat to wheat, with major outbreaks in Africa, Europe, and central Asia. The stem rust resistance gene Sr22 encodes a nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat receptor, which confers resistance to the highly virulent African stem rust isolate, Ug99. Hatta et al. show that the Sr22 gene is conserved among grasses in the Triticeae and Poeae lineages.
Liu et al. explored the mechanism by which Bacillus pumilus LZP02 promotes growth in rice roots through proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic techniques. The results indicated that B. pumilus LZP02 promoted the growth of rice roots by enhancing carbohydrate metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.
Phytoplasmas are intracellular bacterial plant pathogens that cause devastating diseases in crops and ornamental plants through the secretion of effector proteins. One of these effector proteins, termed SAP54, leads to the degradation of a specific subset of floral homeotic proteins of the MIKC-type MADS-domain family via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Aurin et al. report that, based on biophysical and molecular biological analyses, SAP54 folds into an alpha-helical structure.
Djami-Tchatchou et al. find that auxin accumulation during infection by Pseudomonas syringae PtoDC3000 alters the interaction between plant and microbe, inhibiting Salicylic acid production in the plant, thus reducing defenses, and modulating bacterial gene expression, promoting a transition from genes needed in early infection to those required during mid-infection.
Yang et al. explored the role of intrinsic disorder in the development of the pathogenicity in the RXLR AVR2 effector of Phytophthora infestans. Their results support the notion that intrinsic disorder is important for the effector function of pathogens and demonstrate that SLiM-mediated protein-protein interaction in the C-terminal effector domain might contribute greatly to the evasion of resistance-protein detection in P. infestans.
In soybean-rhizobium interactions, the type III secretion system (T3SS) of rhizobium plays a key role in regulating host specificity. However, the lack of information on the role of T3SS in signaling networks limits our understanding of symbiosis. Zhang et al. conducted an RNA sequencing analysis of soybean chromosome segment substituted lines, one female parent and two derived lines with different chromosome-substituted segments of wild soybean and opposite nodulation patterns.